Forklift Starters and Alternators - Today's starter motor is typically a permanent-magnet composition or a series-parallel wound direct current electrical motor with a starter solenoid installed on it. Once current from the starting battery is applied to the solenoid, basically through a key-operated switch, the solenoid engages a lever that pushes out the drive pinion that is situated on the driveshaft and meshes the pinion utilizing the starter ring gear which is seen on the flywheel of the engine.
The solenoid closes the high-current contacts for the starter motor, which begins to turn. Once the engine starts, the key operated switch is opened and a spring inside the solenoid assembly pulls the pinion gear away from the ring gear. This action causes the starter motor to stop. The starter's pinion is clutched to its driveshaft by means of an overrunning clutch. This allows the pinion to transmit drive in just one direction. Drive is transmitted in this particular method through the pinion to the flywheel ring gear. The pinion continuous to be engaged, like for example because the operator fails to release the key as soon as the engine starts or if there is a short and the solenoid remains engaged. This actually causes the pinion to spin independently of its driveshaft.
This aforesaid action prevents the engine from driving the starter. This is an important step as this particular type of back drive will enable the starter to spin so fast that it will fly apart. Unless adjustments were done, the sprag clutch arrangement will prevent making use of the starter as a generator if it was made use of in the hybrid scheme discussed prior. Typically an average starter motor is designed for intermittent use which will preclude it being used as a generator.
Therefore, the electrical components are designed to be able to work for roughly under thirty seconds to prevent overheating. The overheating results from too slow dissipation of heat due to ohmic losses. The electrical parts are meant to save cost and weight. This is actually the reason nearly all owner's handbooks meant for automobiles recommend the driver to pause for at least ten seconds after each and every ten or fifteen seconds of cranking the engine, if trying to start an engine that does not turn over immediately.
The overrunning-clutch pinion was launched onto the marked in the early 1960's. Previous to the 1960's, a Bendix drive was used. This drive system functions on a helically cut driveshaft which has a starter drive pinion placed on it. As soon as the starter motor begins spinning, the inertia of the drive pinion assembly enables it to ride forward on the helix, thus engaging with the ring gear. Once the engine starts, the backdrive caused from the ring gear enables the pinion to surpass the rotating speed of the starter. At this moment, the drive pinion is forced back down the helical shaft and thus out of mesh with the ring gear.
The development of Bendix drive was made in the 1930's with the overrunning-clutch design known as the Bendix Folo-Thru drive, developed and introduced in the 1960s. The Folo-Thru drive has a latching mechanism together with a set of flyweights within the body of the drive unit. This was better as the standard Bendix drive used so as to disengage from the ring as soon as the engine fired, even though it did not stay running.
The drive unit if force forward by inertia on the helical shaft when the starter motor is engaged and starts turning. Then the starter motor becomes latched into the engaged position. As soon as the drive unit is spun at a speed higher than what is achieved by the starter motor itself, for instance it is backdriven by the running engine, and afterward the flyweights pull outward in a radial manner. This releases the latch and allows the overdriven drive unit to become spun out of engagement, hence unwanted starter disengagement could be prevented prior to a successful engine start.
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